Acetyl transferase EP300 deficiency leads to chronic replication stress mediated by defective fork protection at stalled replication forks.

TitleAcetyl transferase EP300 deficiency leads to chronic replication stress mediated by defective fork protection at stalled replication forks.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2023
AuthorsBarreto-Galvez A, Niljikar M, Gagliardi J, Zhang R, Kumar V, Juruwala A, Pradeep A, Shaikh A, Tiwari P, Sharma K, Gerhardt J, Cao J, Kataoka K, Durbin A, Qi J, B Ye H, Madireddy A
Date Published2023 Apr 29

Mutations in the epigenetic regulator and global transcriptional activator, E1A binding protein (EP300), is being increasingly reported in aggressive hematological malignancies including adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL). However, the mechanistic contribution of EP300 dysregulation to cancer initiation and progression are currently unknown. Independent inhibition of EP300 in human cells results in the differential expression of genes involved in regulating the cell cycle, DNA replication and DNA damage response. Nevertheless, specific function played by EP300 in DNA replication initiation, progression and replication fork integrity has not been studied. Here, using ATLL cells as a model to study EP300 deficiency and an p300-selective PROTAC degrader, degrader as a pharmacologic tool, we reveal that EP300-mutated cells display prolonged cell cycle kinetics, due to pronounced dysregulations in DNA replication dynamics leading to persistent genomic instability. Aberrant DNA replication in EP300-mutated cells is characterized by elevated replication origin firing due to increased replisome pausing genome-wide. We demonstrate that EP300 deficiency results in nucleolytic degradation of nascently synthesized DNA at stalled forks due to a prominent defect in fork stabilization and protection. This in turn results in the accumulation of single stranded DNA gaps at collapsed replication forks, in EP300-deficient cells. Inhibition of Mre11 nuclease rescues the ssDNA accumulation indicating a dysregulation in downstream mechanisms that restrain nuclease activity at stalled forks. Importantly, we find that the absence of EP300 results in decreased expression of BRCA2 protein expression and a dependency on POLD3-mediated error-prone replication restart mechanisms. The overall S-phase abnormalities observed lead to under-replicated DNA in G2/M that instigates mitotic DNA synthesis. This in turn is associated with mitotic segregation defects characterized by elevated micronuclei formation, accumulation of cytosolic DNA and transmission of unrepaired inherited DNA lesions in the subsequent G1-phase in EP300-deficient cells. We demonstrate that the DNA replication dynamics of EP300-mutated cells ATLL cells recapitulate features of BRCA-deficient cancers. Altogether these results suggest that mutations in EP300 cause chronic DNA replication stress and defective replication fork restart results in persistent genomic instability that underlie aggressive chemo-resistant tumorigenesis in humans.

Alternate JournalbioRxiv
PubMed ID37163075
PubMed Central IDPMC10168362
Grant ListK08 CA245251 / CA / NCI NIH HHS / United States